TreatmentMetastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) or nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC)
ManufacturerPHOKHAM 2 PHARMACEUTICAL,Laos PDR
Apalutamide, sold under the brand name Phoapal,Erleada among others, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. It is specifically indicated for use in conjunction with castration in the treatment of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC). It is taken by mouth.
Side effects of apalutamide when added to castration include fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, high blood pressure, rash, falls, bone fractures, and an underactive thyroid. Rarely, it can cause seizures. The medication has a high potential for drug interactions. Apalutamide is an antiandrogen, and acts as an antagonist of the androgen receptor, the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In doing so, it prevents the effects of these hormones in the prostate gland and elsewhere in the body.
Apalutamide was first described in 2007, and was approved for the treatment of prostate cancer in February 2018.It was the first medication to be approved specifically for the treatment of NM-CRPC.
Apalutamide is used in conjunction with castration, either via bilateral orchiectomy or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue) therapy, as a method of androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of NM-CRPC.It is also a promising potential treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), which the NSAA enzalutamide and the androgen synthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate are used to treat.
Why is this medication prescribed?
Apalutamide is used to treat certain types of prostate cancer (cancer in men that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]) and has spread to other parts of the body or that has not spread to other parts of the body but has not been helped by other medical treatments. Apalutamide is in a class of medications called androgen receptor inhibitors. It works by blocking the effects of androgen (a male reproductive hormone) to stop the growth and spread of cancer cells.
How should this medicine be used?
Apalutamide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken with or without food once a day. Take apalutamide at around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take apalutamide exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Swallow the tablets whole; do not split, chew, or crush them. If you cannot swallow the tablets whole, place the tablets whole in 120 mL (4 ounces) of applesauce by stirring; however, do not crush the tablets. Wait 15 minutes and then stir the mixture and tablets until well mixed without any chunks remaining. Using a spoon, swallow the mixture right away. Rinse the container with 60 mL (2 ounces) of water and immediately take the mixture. Rinse the container again with 60 mL (2 ounces) of water to ensure the whole dose is taken. Swallow the entire mixture immediately or within 1 hour of preparation. Do not store the mixture for future use.
Your doctor may tell you to stop taking apalutamide for a short time or decrease your dose if you experience serious side effects during your treatment. Be sure to talk to your doctor about how you are feeling during your treatment with apalutamide.
If your doctor has prescribed another medication such as goserelin (Zoladex), histrelin (Supprelin LA, Vantas), leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron, in Lupaneta Pack), or triptorelin (Trelstar, Triptodur) to treat your prostate cancer, you will need to continue receiving this medication during your treatment with apalutamide.
Continue to take apalutamide even if you feel well. Do not stop taking apalutamide without talking to your doctor.
Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.
Other uses for this medicine
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
What side effects can this medication cause?
Apalutamide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
muscle weakness or stiffness
loss of appetite